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References

[i] Tamura MK, O’Hare AM, Lin E, Holdsworth LM, Malcolm E, Moss AH. Palliative Care Disincentives in CKD: Changing Policy to Improve CKD Care. Am J Kidney Dis. 2018;71(6):866-873. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2017.12.017.

[ii] Brown, L, Gardner, G, Bonner A. A comparison of treatment options for management of end stage kidney disease in elderly patients: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports: July 2014 - Volume 12 - Issue 7 - p 374–404. doi: 10.11124/jbisrir-2014-1152.

[iii] Verberne WR, Geers ABMT, Jellema WT, et al. Comparative survival among older adults with advanced kidney disease managed conservatively versus with dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;(18):1–8. doi:10.2215/CJN.07510715

[iv] Da Silva-Gane M, Wellsted D, Greenshields H, Norton S, Chandna SM, Farrington K. Quality of life and survival in patients with advanced kidney failure managed conservatively or by dialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(12):2002–2009. doi:10.2215/CJN.01130112.

[v] Wachterman MW, Pilver C, Smith D, Ersek M, Lipsitz SR, Keating NL. Quality of end-of-life care provided to patients with different serious illnesses. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Aug 01; 176(8):1095-102. PMID: 27367547.

[vi] United States Renal Data System. 2015 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States. CH12 End-of-life Care for Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: 2000-2012. Bethesda, MD

[vii] Nadeem E, Olin SS, Hill LC, Hoagwood KE, Horwitz SM. Understanding the components of quality improvement collaboratives: A systematic literature review. Milbank Q. 2013;91(2):354-394. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/milq.12016.

[viii] Wells S, Tamir O, Gray J, et al. Are quality improvement collaboratives effective?  A systematic review. BMJ Quality and Safety. 21 October 2017. doi. 10.1136/bmjqs-2017-006926